The Ice Age top predator research in Europe focused these past years on hunting of cave bears in large cave bear dens. Studied and referred Late Pleistocene (MIS3–5d) European cave sites with ‘Palaeolithic cave bear pseudo-bone flutes’, and compared cave bear dens with hyena influence (hyena palaeobiogeography of 150 sites [4]). Also one hole of the pseudo-bone flute of Istállóskö Cave is clearly produced, or a tooth mark hole extended, by mouse chewing (cf. The femora of subadult cave bears are intermediate in damage patterns, compared to the adult ones, which were fully crushed to pieces. It's possible that Neanderthals may still have got their groove on by clapping their hands or slapping their bodies (still better than modern pop music), but there is no evidence that they actually created musical instruments. Rezultati računalniske tomografije najstarejše domnevne piščali iz Divjih bab I (Slovenija): prispevek k teoriji luknjanja kosti. Brodar [8] reported cave bear cub femora and other cave bear bones ‘with holes’ as further proof of the ‘oldest instruments in the world’ from the Mokriška Jama Cave (or Medvedja Jama Cave=Bear Cave), Slovenia. Palaeopopulations of Late Pleistocene top predators in Europe—Ice Age spotted hyenas and steppe lions in battle and competition about prey. The Neanderthal flute of Divje Babe In 1995, Ivan Turk and his team discovered the oldest known flute in a bear cave called Divje Babe (‘wild woman’). Cave bear scavenging models in larger cave bear den caves (here Zoolithen Cave, Germany) for all three top predators that hunted, killed and scavenged on cave bears all over Europe within caves in boreal forest palaeoenvironments. Dated and tested independently by two laboratories, in England and Germany, the artifacts are authentic products of the Homo sapiens Aurignacian archaeological culture, made in between 43,000 and 35,000 years ago. A skull cap was first discovered, followed by two femurs, five arm bones, part of the left pelvis, and fragments of a shoulder blade and ribs. ‘bone flute holes’ (composed and adapted from [4,14,15,22,23]; illustrations G. Teichmann). As is now well known, Aurignacian humans lived in Europe together with the last and largest cave bear species U. ingressus [16,18,21,23,58,59]. Ethnologist/musicians created then a wave of ‘cave bear bone instruments’ based solely on ‘holes in bones’ (compiled in [11]), from all kinds of carnivore punctured cave bear bones, even other than femora. Potok Cave), Slovenia [1]. Login with Facebook (12) Cub coxa from the Weiße Kuhle Cave, Germany. Those indeed also left, in some cases, round–oval, larger punctures in cave bear bones, but with their canines only in soft spongiosa (pelvis, vertebrae), and never in any bone shaft compacta. 2.1. definitions and discussions in [4,14,18–20,20,21,54,74]. [9,10]). (6) Selected femur fragments of cub to subadult cave bears (U. s. eremus and U. s. (a) Cranial view, (b) detail of the cranial tooth mark holes, (c) caudal view, (d) detail of the caudal tooth mark holes, (e) reconstruction refitting of the P-teeth into the cranial and caudal tooth pits, demonstrating exact fitting and two overlapping diagonal tooth marks (GTCP collection). Europe's first Upper Pleistocene Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823) skeleton from the Konìprusy Caves—a hyena cave prey depot site in the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic)—Late Pleistocene woolly rhinoceros scavengers. The detail continuous stages of cub femora puncture to breaking stages are demonstrated for the first time herein in the Weiße Kuhle Cave material (figure 6), whereas breakage is much rarer in subadult to adult femora (figures 6, 7 and 8). Introduction 2.1 First ‘bone flute descriptions’. Oldest and most northern Late Palaeolithic cave bear hunters in Europe. [66]). There, the cave bear layers themselves, which generally span from the MIS3–5d=25,000–113,000 BP, overlap/intercalate with the Cro-Magnon times, mainly Aurignacian, partly Gravettian, cultural layers [5,23,57]. ‘Pseudo-bone flutes’ are not in Middle Palaeolithic archaeological, but of Late Palaeolithic and cave bear den context with large carnivore influence. When he’s not watching YouTube videos of cats playing the piano, you can find him foraging in the wild or hammering on a set of drums. The perforated bone, found in an Eastern European cave, represents a flute made and played by Neandertals at least 43,000 ye us ago, the scientists contended. Stages of cave bear femur destruction by Ice Age spotted hyena. And there's a scientist nearby to record the shame for all the world to see. [24]), which attributed possible ‘holes’ to ‘canines’, which was contradictory to several arguments by Turk et al. On cub femora, which are not well calcified and elastic-spongious in the compacta, hyenas produced in many cases only holes with their premolar bone crushing teeth (mainly P3) due to unsuccessful bone crushing (femur from Oase Cave, Romania). Museum employees, volunteers, and interns are encouraged to blog about their unique experiences and … This was a smaller cave bear and Ice Age spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta spelaea) carnivore den which overlaps with another Aurignacian camp site, but again, it has no Middle Palaeolithic Neanderthal occupation signs (cf. From the literature, new interpretations were made of the sites in the archaeological content (Neanderthal versus Aurignacian sites), and overlap in carnivore den use (hyena/wolf den—always at entrance areas) and identification as small to large cave bear dens (figure 1 and table 1). The first ‘Neanderthal cave bear bone flute’ from the Middle Palaeolithic was believed to have been discovered in the 1920s from Potočka Zijalka Jama Cave (i.e. Cave bear scavenging models in larger cave bear den caves (here Zoolithen Cave, Germany) for all three top predators that hunted, killed and scavenged on cave bears all over Europe within caves in boreal forest palaeoenvironments. The cave bear bones with round–oval, larger puncture marks can be well attributed solely to the main cave bear scavenger of Europe—the Ice Age spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea. DOUBTS AIRED OVER NEANDERTHAL BONE 'FLUTE' (AND REPLY BY MUSICOLOGIST BOB FINK) Science News 153 (April 4, 1998): 215. In most of those dens, about 20% of adult to 80% of bear cub remains have large carnivore damage. This bone fragment was perforated with four round holes whose shape and alignment strongly suggested that it was, indeed, the remnant of a Neanderthal wind instrument. (a) Dorsal, (b) lateral, (c) detail of lateral tooth mark holes (produced by carnivore canines, best fitting to hyenas or lions) (PAL collection). Divje Babe I. By B. Bower. Pseudo ‘Neanderthal bone flutes’ of different aged cave bear (U. s. subsp. (13–14) Cub and adult calcanei from the Weiße Kuhle Cave, Germany (all PAL collection).
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